Veterans with Chemical Exposure

Research Article

DNA damage and repair proteins in cellular response to sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans more than two decades after exposure

Delayed effects of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure on the levels of five important damage/repair proteins were investigated in 40 SM-exposed veterans of Iran-Iraq war and 35 unexposed controls. A major DNA damage biomarker protein - phosphorylated H2AX - along with …

Khateri S, Balali-Mood M, Blain P, Williams F, Jowsey P, Soroush MR, et al.

Toxicol Letters 2017 Dec; pii: S0378-4274(17)31503-5


Research Article

Mental health status following severe sulfur mustard exposure: a long-term study of Iranian war survivors

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe the mental health status of sulfur mustard-exposed survivors suffering from severe respiratory and ophthalmological problems. METHODS: Out of 450 invited Iran-Iraq War survivors of sulfur mustard exposure with severe symptoms, 350 participated in this …

Khateri S, Soroush M, Mokhber N, Sedighimoghaddam M, Modirian E, Mousavi B, et al.

Asia Pac Psychiatry 2017 Jun; 9(2): 6 Pages


Research Article

Sulfur mustard exposure and mental health in survivors of Iran–Iraq war with severe lung injuries

To evaluate mental health status of the survivors with sulfur mustard (SM) induced severe lung injury (n = 291), Iranian standardized symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire was used. The global severity index (GSI) was compared with the cutoff point of Iranian general …

Mousavi B, Khateri Sh, Soroush M & Ganjparvar Z

Toxin Reviews 2017 Mar; 36(4): 265-269 


Research Article

Association between Acne and Serum Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and RANTES) in Mustard Gas-Exposed Patients: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study

BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a very common chronic inflammatory disorder, yet its pathogenesis is not clearly understood. As part of the SICS, this study was conducted to evaluate the association between the incidence of acne vulgaris in SM-exposed subjects (20 …

Askari N, Ghazanfari T, Yaraee R, Vaez Mahdavi MR, Soroush MR, Hassan ZM, et al.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Feb; 20(2): 86-91


Research Article

Relationship Between Serum Bilirubin Concentration and Inflammatory Cytokines in Victims Exposed to Sulfur Mustard

Background: Despite observed post Sulfur Mustard (SM) exposure hemolysis, serum bilirubin concentration does not significantly increase in SM-exposed casualties. The concentration of serum bilirubin can be related to serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Objectives: In this study, the relationship between …

Jalali-Nadoushan M, Vaez Mahdavi MR, Soroush MR, Hassan ZM, Shams J, Faghihzadeh S, et al.

Trauma Monthly 2016 Oct; 22(6): e64931


Research Article

Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase

CONTEXT: Sulfur mustard (SM) was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure) and decades later …

Hejazi S, Soroush M, Moradi A, Khalilazar S, Mousavi B, Firooz A, et al.

Toxicol Reports 2016 Sep; 3: 679-684


Research Article

Mental Health Status in Severe Lung Chemical Injured Veterans Exposed to Sulfur Mustard

Aims: Severe pulmonary chemically injured veterans experience more physical and environmental problems than other war victims that might lead to more difficult life conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health statuses of the severe pulmonary …

Sedighi Moghadam MR, Afshar H, Khateri Sh, Soroush M, Mousavi B, Mousavi SJ, et al.

Iran J War Public Health 2015 Dec; 7(4): 207-215


Research Article

Identification of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantification of MicroRNAs in Serum Samples of Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Veterans

OBJECTIVE: In spite of accumulating information about pathological aspects of sulfur mustard (SM), the precise mechanism responsible for its effects is not well understood. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Accurate normalization using appropriate reference …

Gharbi S, Shamsara M, Khateri S, Soroush MR, Ghorbanmehr N, Tavallaei M, et al.

Cell Journal 2015 Oct; 17(3): 494-501


Research Article

Mental Health in Severe Ocular Chemical Injuries

Aims: Mustard gas is a toxic chemical agent that was repeatedly used by the Iraqi army against Iranian civilians and non-civilians during 8 years of war. The aim of this study was to assess the variety of mental disorders in …

Modirian E, Mousavi SJ, Mousavi B, Soroush M, Khateri Sh, Hosseini M, et al.

Iran J War Public Health 2015 Sep; 7(3): 139-145


Letter to Editor

A response to “Comment on incidence of cancer in Iranian sulfur mustard exposed veterans”

This article is written in “Letter to the Editor” format in response to the article entitled “Comment on incidence of cancer in Iranian sulfur mustard (SM) exposed veterans” (Inhalation Toxicology 2013, Volume 25, Issue 11, Page 651).

Mousavi B & Soroush M

Iran J War Public Health 2015 Sep; 7(3): 123-125


Research Article

Down-regulation of TGF-b1, TGF-b receptor 2, and TGF-b-associated microRNAs, miR-20a and miR-21, in skin lesions of sulfur mustard-exposed Iranian war veterans

Sulfur mustard (SM) affects divergent cellular pathways including cell cycle, apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammatory responses. SM-induced lesions in skin include late-onset hyper-pigmentation, xerosis, and atrophy. It seems that TGF-b signaling pathway is a major player for SM pathogenesis. Here, we …

Valizadeh M, Mirzaei B, Tavallaei M, Noorani MR, Amiri M, Soroush MR, et al.

Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction 2015 Jul; 35(6): 634-639


Research Article

Optimizing microRNA quantification in serum samples

MicroRNAs constitute a group of small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. Aside from their contribution to biological and pathological pathways, altered expression of microRNAs is reported in bio-fluid samples, such as serum. To employ serum's microRNAs as potential …

Gharbi S, Mirzadeh F, Khatrei Sh, Soroush MR, Tavallaie M, Nourani MR, et al.

Journal of Cell and Molecular Research 2014 Dec; 6(2): 52-56


Research Article

Association between IL-18 and IL-18bp Levels and Chronic Urticaria in Sulfur Mustard Exposed Veterans

Aims: Exposure to mustard gas leads to acute and chronic toxic effects on the skin. Results from several studies have been suggested the role of immune mediators, including Interleukin-18, in the pathogenesis of diseases associated with the urticaria appearance. The …

Askari N, Ghazanfari T, Shohreh J, Soroush MR & Davoudi SM

Iran J War Public Health 2014 Sep; 6(4): 177-181


Research Article

Serum level of SDF-1α (CXCL12) in chemical victims with respiratory complications

Background & Purpose: Sulfur Mustard (SM) has been widely used as a chemical warfare agent against Iranian in Iraq-Iran conflict. Many years after exposure, people who have been exposed to SM are still suffering from its late complications including ocular, …

Ayubi F, Ghazanfari T, Askari N, Naghizade MM & Soroush MR

Iran J War Public Health 2014 March; 6(2): 55-63


Research Article

Incidence of cancer in Iranian sulfur mustard exposed veterans: a long-term follow-up cohort study

Introduction It is estimated that during the Iraq–Iran war of the 1980s, over 100,000 Iranians (military or civilian) were exposed to sulfur mustard (SM), and a considerable proportion of them are still suffering with long-term consequences of exposure. The …

Zafarghandi MR, Soroush MR, Mahmoodi M, Holakouie Naieni K, Ardalan A, Dolatyari A, et al.

Cancer Causes & Control 2013 Nov; 24(1): 99-105


Research Article

Chemokines, MMP-9 and PMN elastase in spontaneous sputum of sulfur mustard exposed civilians: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study

Chemokines play an important role in acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of chemokines, MMP-9, and PMN elastase in spontaneous sputum and serum of patients 20 years after SM exposure. In … 

Pourfarzam Sh, Yaraee R, Hassan ZM, Yarmohammadi ME, Faghihzadeh S, Soroush MR, et al.

International immunopharmacology 2013 Nov; 17(3): 958-963


Research Article

Long term impact of sulfur mustard exposure on peripheral blood mononuclear subpopulations--Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS)

The most important long-term morbidity problem of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity is pulmonary complications but the pathogenesis of these complications is not clearly understood. This study evaluates the peripheral blood mononuclear sub-sets and their correlation with pulmonary function in SM …

Ghazanfari T, Kariminia A, Yaraee R, Faghihzadeh S, Ardestani SK, Ebtekar M, et al.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2013 Nov; 17(3): 931-935


Research Article

Fibrinogen and inflammatory cytokines in spontaneous sputum of sulfur-mustard-exposed civilians--Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study

Sulfur mustard (SM) causes late complications in respiratory system of exposed individuals. In this preliminary study, the levels of IL-1α and β, TNF, IL-1Ra, IL-6 and fibrinogen in the spontaneous sputum of SM-exposed individuals were examined 20 years after exposure …

Yaraee R, Hassan ZM, Pourfarzam S, Rezaei A, Faghihzadeh S, Ebtekar M, et al.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2013 Nov; 17(3): 968-73


Research Article 

Pro-inflammatory cytokines among individuals with skin findings long-term after sulfur mustard exposure: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating vesicant warfare chemical agent which causes severe damages to the interface organs, skin, lungs and eyes. The most common chronic skin lesions are mustard scars, xerosis, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, cherry angioma and hyperpigmentation …

Moin A, Khamesipour A, Hassan ZM, Ebtekar M, Davoudi SM, Vaez-Mahdavi MR, et al.

Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov; 17(3): 986-90


Research Article

Association of chemokines and prolactin with cherry angioma in a sulfur mustard exposed population--Sardasht-Iran cohort study

Exposure to SM leads to short and long term adverse effects on various organs including the skin. Cherry angioma is one of the late skin disorders in SM exposed individuals. The pathogenesis of abnormal angiogenesis in cherry angioma is not …

Askari N, Vaez-Mahdavi MR, Moaiedmohseni S, Khamesipour A, Soroush MR, Moin A, et al.

Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov;17(3):991-5


Research Article

Effects of paraoxonase 1 activity and gene polymorphisms on long-term pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard-exposed veterans

Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent with prolonged adverse effects. The antioxidant paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an endogenous free radical scavenger, plays a protective role against oxidative stress. The possible roles of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of SM, together …

Taravati A, Ardestani SK, Ziaee AA, Ghorbani A, Soroush MR, Faghihzadeh S, et al.

Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov; 17(3): 974-979


Research Article

Association of serum immunoglobulins levels and eye injuries in sulfur mustard exposed: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study

In this study the associations between ocular problems and serum levels of immunoglobulins in sulfur mustard (SM) exposed population 20 years after exposure in context of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study was explored. Serum immunoglobulins (Ig) levels including IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG, …

Ghasemi H, Mostafaie A, Yaraee R, Hassan ZM, Rezaei A, Mahmoudi M, et al.

Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov; 17(3): 944-951


Research Article

Salivary levels of secretary IgA, C5a and alpha 1-antitrypsin in sulfur mustard exposed patients 20 years after the exposure, Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS)

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong toxic agent that causes acute and chronic health effects on a myriad of organs following exposure. Although the primary targets of inhaled mustard gas are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract, the lower …

Yarmohammadi ME, Hassan ZM, Mostafaie A, Ebtekar M, Yaraee R, Pourfarzam S, et al.

Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov; 17(3): 952-957


Research Article

Association of ophthalmic complications in patients with sulfur mustard induced mild ocular complications and serum soluble adhesion molecules: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study

The aim of this study was to evaluate possible association between ophthalmic complications in sulfur mustard (SM) exposed patients with mild ocular injuries and serum soluble adhesion molecules. Serum levels of sICAM-1, sL-selectin, sP-selectin and sE-selectin in 367 SM-exposed individuals …

Ghasemi H, Yaraee R, Hassan ZM, Faghihzadeh S, Soroush MR, Pourfarzam S, et al.

Int Immunopharmacol 2013 Nov; 17(3): 980-985


Research Article

Are serum levels of immunoglobulin classes and IgG subclasses involved in delayed pulmonary complications induced by sulfur mustard? Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study

Respiratory complications are the foremost long term debilitating effects after sulfur mustard toxicity. The underlying immunological mechanisms of sulfur mustard induced lung damage are still poorly understood. The question of the involvement of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in delayed pulmonary …

Ghazanfari T, Mostafaie A, Yaraee R, Pourfarzam S, Faghihzadeh S, Rezaei A, et al.

International immunopharmacology 2013 Nov; 17(3): 936-943


Research Article

A clinicopathological approach to sulfur mustard-induced organ complications: a major review

Abstract Context: Sulfur mustard (SM), with an old manufacturing history still remains as potential threat due to easy production and extensive effects. Objectives: Increasing studies on SM indicates the interest of researchers to this subject. Almost all human body organs …

Ghasemi H, Owlia P, Jalali-Nadoushan MR, Pourfarzam Sh, Azimi Gh, Yarmohammadi ME, et al.

Cutaneous and ocular toxicology 2013 Apr; 32(4): 304-324


Research Article

Long-term effects of sulfur mustard on civilians’ mental health 20 years after exposure (The Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study)

Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent that induces short and long term toxicity on various organs. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term psychological symptoms among samples of exposed to sulfur mustard gas compared with …

Roshan R, Rahnama P, Ghazanfari Z, Montazeri A, Soroush MR, Naghizadeh MM, et al.

Health and quality of life outcomes 2013 Apr; 11(1): 69 pages


Research Article

Conjunctival microbial florae in patients with seriously sulfur mustard induced eye injuries

INTRODUCTION: Ocular surface disorders and infections in sulfur mustard (SM) exposed patients are of particular clinical importance. The aim of the present study is to detect the conjunctival bacterial florae in patients with seriously SM induced eye injuries. MATERIALS AND …

Ghasemi H, Owlia P, Ghazanfari T, Yaraee R, Saderi H, Soroush MR, et al.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2013 Mar; 32(1): 13-17


Research Article

Long- term effects of sulfur mustard on quality of sleep 20 years after exposure (Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study)

Background: Sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, was widelyused by the Iraqi army during the Iraq-Iran war. The aim of this study was to comparing quality of sleep between SM exposed from Sardasht and unexposed from Rabat. Methods: …

Rahnama P, Ghazanfari Z, Naghizadeh MM, Soroush MR & Ghazanfari T

IJWPH 2012 Nov, 5(1): 45-49


Research Article

Evaluation of the tear and serum levels of IL-8 in sulfur mustard intoxicated patients 20 years after exposure

Purpose: Delayed keratitis is the most dangerous ocular complication of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the role of tear and serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in SM exposed subjects. Design and methods: In this historical cohort …

Ghasemi H, Ghazanfari T, Yaraee R, Pourfarzam Sh, Soroush MR, Faghihzadeh S, et al.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2012 Oct; 31(2): 132-137


Research Article

Sezary syndrome, Kaposi sarcoma and generalized dermatophytosis 15 years after sulfur mustard gas exposure

We introduce a 58-year-old man with an abrupt, de novo and erythrodermic eruption in 2002

that was previously exposed to sulfur mustard during the Iran – Iraq war in 1987. Six weeks after

the onset of diffuse eruption, he developed papules …

Emadi SN, Babamahmoodi F, Poursaleh Z, Sayad-Noori SS, Soroush MR, Maleki AR, et al.

J Dermatol Case Rep. 2012 Sep; 6(3): 86–89


Research Article

Comparison late cutaneous complications between exposure to sulfur mustard and nerve agents

Background: Iraq used chemical weapons against thousands of Iranian militaries and civilians. This study aimed to compare the chronic cutaneous side effects of exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) with nerve agents (NA). Methods: The study enrolled 154 SM exposed …

Emadi SN, Aslani J, Poursaleh Z, Izadi M, Soroush M, Kafashi M, et al.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2012 Sep; 31(3): 214-219


Research Article

Serum albumin and paraoxonase activity in Iranian veterans 20 years after sulfur mustard exposure.

Sulfur mustard, a chemical warfare agent, has short- and long-term effects on various organs including respiratory system. Its late toxic effects on biological macromolecules among exposed veterans have not been well studied. We performed a study to determine paraoxonase-1 (PON1) …

Taravati A, Ardestani SK, Soroush MR, Faghihzadeh S, Ghazanfari T, Jalilvand F, et al.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2012 Aug; 34(4): 706-713


Research Article

Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study

Background Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological …

Ghaedi G, Ghasemi H, Mousavi B, Soroush MR, Rahnama P, Jafari F, et al.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2012 Apr; 10: 36


Research Article

Long-term ocular consequences of sulfur mustard in lung-injured war veterans

PURPOSE: Ocular and pulmonary involvement are the most important complications of sulfur mustard (SM) that may happen many years after exposure. This study aims to evaluate the severity of ocular involvement and the correlation between late ocular and lung complications …

Ghasemi H, Ghazanfari T, Yaraee R, Rafii AB, Pourfarzam S, Soroush MR, et al.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2012 Mar; 31(1): 33-37


Research Article

Quality of life in chemical war victims with sever pulmonary damage

Introduction: Chronic complications due to chemical weapon exposure can negatively affect the quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had severe pulmonary complications due to the …

Jafari F, Guitynavard F, Soroush MR & Mousavi B

IJWPH 2011 Nov; 4(1): 46-52